Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. Depending on the age, the clinic can be very unspecific so a high degree of suspicion, early and accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and sometimes a medium or long term follow up and study is necessary.
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract are one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities in the prenatal period. Although they usually have a benign course, a small percentage present serious medical complications, constituting the main cause of advanced chronic kidney disease in childhood. Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the abnormal development of the renal and urological system.
It can be given by factors:
- Environmental, by themselves the genetic factors cannot explain the totality of the pathologies. Some factors that have been implicated in the genesis of these malformations are: exposure to teratogens, vitamin A deficiency or diabetes mellitus in pregnant women, especially in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Embryology, to understand congenital kidney malformations it is very useful to know the embryonic development, because both are intimately linked. Depending on the chronological moment in which the lesion occurs, different alterations will be produced.
There is no complementary test that allows, by itself, to unequivocally diagnose the obstruction. Therefore, it is important to interpret the different tests together, especially over time. Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis and follow-up because of its accessibility, information and lack of radiation.