Peripheral obstructive arterial disease or PAD is a common condition in older patients. Its presence can lead to the appearance of chronic ulcers located in the affected area and intermittent claudication. The diagnosis must be associated with the necessary studies to rule out the existence of other vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis or coronary disease. The presence of an arterial obstruction is a predictive factor of cardiovascular risk. The presence of pulses is synonymous with an inadequate state of arterial circulation in the lower limbs. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) can be used to assess the presence and severity of the obstruction and to make an early diagnosis and treatment of the obstruction. This scan, easy to perform, and low cost, is a diagnostic technique that should be performed at the primary health care level.
The ankle-brachial index (ITB) is a test used to facilitate the diagnosis of PAD. This test uses a blood pressure measurement device with an inflatable cuff, and blood pressure measurements are taken at the upper arm and ankle. The equipment can be manual or digital with automatic electronic calculation of blood pressure. The ITB is widely used for the evaluation of PAD by specialist nurses, doctors, surgeons and chiropodists working in hospitals. The division of the blood pressure recorded at the ankle by that recorded at the arm produces a ratio. Ratios of 0.90 to 1.30 are considered normal for adults, and ratios less than 0.8 indicate the presence of PAD. Lower readings suggest that the disease is severe and patients may develop ulcers and gangrene.
Detailed arterial ultrasound allows us to study the arteries to the legs, arms and other parts of the
body such as the neck and abdomen. With a study suitable for people with atherosclerosis or arterial disease. It can also be done with surveillance and control to prevent this type of disease in cases of patients who need it, diabetics or elderly